That’s actually expected and explained above.
Rechargeable batteries have a lower operating voltage around 1.3V v/s 1.5V for alkaline batteries. Lock circuits are calibrated to cut off lock operation when the voltage falls below a certain threshold, e.g. 1.1V. The voltage discharge curve of a alkaline battery is longer so it takes longer to get to 1.1V where as rechargeable batteries get to 1.1V much faster hence the lock circuit powers down much faster. For that matter Lithium batteries have a much flatter voltage curve so they take longer to get to 1.1V (but i’ll happen much faster in the end like in a few hours v/s days) so they are able to extract the most juice from batteries before the lock does.
To make things more interesting is the difference between no-load and load voltage drops. When the lock draws a large amount of power from the battery (e.g. when operating the deadbolt), it causes a temporary voltage drop due to internal resistance of the battery. Rechargeable batteries have a higher voltage drop (it varies depending on chemistry, NiCD or NiMH, NiMH are better of the two) under heavy load than alkaline batteries (Lithium have the least), so it very likely that when operating the deadbolt the lock will suddenly “die” when using rechargeable batteries. Infact some locks like Schlage BE469 have a huge current draw and cause this phenomena even with alkaline batteries and so it’s recommended to change deadlock batteries at 60% instead of waiting for it to go lower. This is explained here and you can find some recommendations about it here.
Due to difference in battery chemistry/voltages and the lock chip cut voltages, rechargeable batteries are not recommended to use with locks.