Ok that method is different from mine. You have a supervised version and mine is “unsupervised” in a docker container (I believe they call mine Home Assistant “Core” or Home Assistant “Container”). Although both use Docker, you’re not creating the container the same way following those Debian instructions and the --net option probably doesn’t apply to that setup.
I have ubuntu so went a different route. My setup follows these instructions https://www.home-assistant.io/docs/installation/docker/ but I lose the Home Assistant supervisor and addons. That Debian method seems more complex to me where more could potentially go wrong, as it’s “sorta” supported by home assistant as opposed to the Docker or RPI install. With the docker install method, since I don’t have supervisor, I can run other docker containers on the same machine and use it for other stuff, which is a plus. The biggest pain in the butt without supervisor though was setting up the SSl server which I did by following these instructions - https://community.home-assistant.io/t/nginx-reverse-proxy-set-up-guide-docker/54802 . I would hate to recommend you start over from scratch with a different Home Assistant installation though, but that’s the key difference between my setup and yours. I looked through that Debian thread and someone there mentioned they have Smartthings, so I would think it would work with your setup.
I don’t think it’s an issue with Smartthings or your token, and tend to think its more of an issue with your Homeassistant setup, firewall, or your machine. You’re getting your token from this page and copying all of it right? - https://account.smartthings.com/tokens
To test if it is a problem with your machine getting webhooks in general, you can try another Home Assitant integration that needs webhooks, like IFTTT, and see if you run into the same issues. If so, that would definitely tell you the problem is not just the Smartthings integration.